Management and Supervision in Law Enforcement

There are many different levels of management and/or supervision in law enforcement agencies. “When city police were first established their only contact with their departments was face-to-face meetings or messengers” (Bennett, Hess, & Meier, 2007). As the country grew and society became more complex, federal and state agencies were created to satisfy needs that were not being met at the local level. In 1789, Congress begin to create several federal law enforcement agencies. The earliest law enforcement agencies consisted of the U.S. Marshals, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, The Secret Service, and The Internal Revenue Service.

One of Saint Leo University’s Core Values is Community. Saint Leo University fosters a spirit of belonging, unity, and interdependence, which is based on mutual trust and respect, in an effort to create socially responsible environments that encourages all of us to listen, learn, to change, and to serve. As it relates to the function(s) of being an officer, communities play a major role in the process. Local law enforcement agencies are not prepared in staff and supplies. The lagging economy and the increase in requirements for homeland security equipment has caused law enforcement agencies to have little money left to pay officers’ salaries (Hamilton., 2004). Some solutions to personnel shortages may seem extreme, but the operation must still go on.

REFERENCES

Bennett, W., M. Hess, C. Meir (2007), Introduction to Law Enforcement and Criminal

Justice, 5th Edition

Hamilton, M. (2004), Police Magazine: “The Money Crunch: Staffing Coverage”

 

Insider’s Guide to Being a Good Parent, In-Law, Andor Grandparent

I’m sure that everyone has heard or read horror stories about those awful in-laws. You know the ones I’m talking about: Those who just can’t, or won’t, stay out of their children’s’ business. The ones that insist on offering unsolicited advice at every turn and sometimes even go so far as trying to take over raising their grandchildren.

Having been the victim of the mother-in-law from hell, I learned a valuable lesson early in my life. I learned how to butt out – – stay out – – and keep my big mouth shut! It is a pity that more parents, in-laws and grandparents don’t seem to be able to do the same. With that in mind, I thought I’d share an “Insider’s Guide to Being a Good Parent, In-Law, and/or Grandparent.” Do with it what you will.

Insider’s Guide #1: Stay out of your child’s business. Remember you raised your children to be independent, self-sufficient individuals. If you have done your job properly, they will generally make good decisions. Of course no one is perfect – – including you – – so there is always the outside chance that they might stumble from time to time. It is not your job as a parent to step in and fix their problems. It is your job to be a support mechanism. If and when your child needs you, they will let you know. Until then, mind your own business; not your child’s.

My mother had one solid golden rule: Don’t offer advice unless you are asked you for it. I respected her for that. She never jumped into the middle of my husband’s and my marriage. She never told me how to raise my children. She never offered her unsolicited opinions. She was always there with open arms and outstretched hands if I needed assistance. However, she believed that I had the capability, courage, and fortitude to take care of myself. Nothing ever meant more to me, except of course her unconditional love, than the respect and belief she exhibited in me.

Insider’s Guide #2: Learn to love your child’s spouse or significant other. This can be a hard task to mange. However, I cannot count the number of parents that I personally know who lost their children forever because they refused to accept their child’s choice in love. In many ways, this suggestion echoes the first one. If you as a parent have taught your child all of the right things like self-respect, self-sufficiency, and independence then they should have the capability of making viable choices, even in love. Notice I said “should.” The fact of the matter is that love doesn’t always make a great deal of sense. Pheromones sometimes come into play and oftentimes lust will get mistaken for love. Therefore, sometimes children will make poor decisions in the area of love. Hopefully, these will be temporary; however, no matter what it is still their decision to make; not yours. They will learn soon enough if they have chosen poorly and they will correct the problem. Your interference as a parent will only strengthen their resolve to stand true to that bad decision just to spite you. That will not serve anyone well.

Case in point, when she was younger my daughter was a bit of a rebel. She loved doing things that she knew would push her father’s and my buttons. Consequently, at one point she announced that she was “in love” with a boy that she knew without a doubt her father and I would hate. Now I will admit that we did try to sway her decision early on. However, once she had dug in her heels and made it perfectly clear that she wasn’t about to listen to what we had to say, we just stopped talking. We didn’t exactly give her love affair unconditional support but we didn’t fight it either. The strategy worked and before we expected it to happen she had dumped her paramour du jour in favor of exactly the type of young man we knew would treat her with the respect, dignity, and love she deserved. It wasn’t easy for us to take that risk; however, it paid off in spades.

Insider’s Guide #3: Don’t expect your child to be a mirror image of you. While it is obviously important for parents to be role models and guides in their children’s’ lives, it does not mean that we have the right to try to remake our children in our own image. Who says we got everything right?

Growing up I had a close friend whose father was a minister. From the moment he was born, Terry’s father automatically assumed that his son would also become a minister. Even in kindergarten, I remember Terry announcing that he was going to be a preacher. When his teacher asked him to explain what that was to his classmates, he couldn’t. He just knew that it was what he was supposed to grow up to be. Everything he did in life, every class he ever took, and every move he ever made was geared toward that end. Finally, he entered Bible College. His father was proud. His mother was ecstatic. But Terry was terrified and within less than a year, he had dropped out due to a mental break down. Not to be one to give in, however, he fought his way back to health and within a couple of years he was right back in Bible College, where he remained for only a few months before dropping out once again. Broken, discouraged, and totally uncertain of his purpose in life, this once wonderful, vibrant, intelligent young man – – our class valedictorian – – was working in a car wash. Gone was his spark and any inkling of the boy I knew growing up. All that was left was an empty shell. Although, it was never his father’s intention to do so, he had set his son up for failure; a failure from which Terry never recovered.

Insider’s Guide #4: Recognize your in-laws for the special people that they are. If you can’t do that as a parent, you are going to miss out on some of the most wonderful experiences of your life. Learning to love – – or at least pretend to love – – your child’s spouse of significant other is one thing, but actually “recognizing” that individual for their own unique qualities is something else altogether.

Case in Point: My son-in-law is one of the most kind, considerate, loving human beings that ever walked the face of this earth. I learned that about him early on. After all, he had excellent taste: He chose my daughter to be his wife. But it wasn’t until a few years later that I really understood the depth of this man’s love for my daughter; enough so that I knew she was safe in his care. Taking a page from my mother’s book, I chose not to interfere in my daughter’s life in any way. She is more than capable of handling herself in any situation. I knew that and I believed it. Still, a mother always has that special little nagging fear in her heart that someone might hurt her child. I lived with that fear for years. As much as I love my daughter I know that she isn’t the easiest person to get along with. She is tough, opinionated, and stubborn; not that I can imagine where she would have gotten such traits. She will push and push and push a person away from her just to test them; to see if they will still love her anyway. My wonderful son-in-law has never failed one of those tests. What more can a mother ask for? Likewise, my son who is little more on the sensitive side, managed to find just the right woman to be his mate. I trusted her, early on as well and she has also never failed to prove me right. She offers her support and love at every juncture but she doesn’t let my son get away with anything. She is the perfect mixture of strength and love. Had I not accepted my son-in-law and daughter-in-law for who they are, I would have missed out on two of the greatest joys of my life.

Insider’s Guide #5: Your job as a grandparent is to be fun!You have already been a parent. You have already suffered the anxiety and torture of adolescent angst. You have already made every mistake in the book. You don’t have to repeat everything with your grandchildren. They are your children’s responsibility and they are your children’s problem. What grandchildren should be to you is pure, unfettered, untamed, inexplicable joy. Your role as a grandparent is to love, support, embrace, encourage, and enjoy your grandchildren. I am convinced that there is no greater gift on this earth.

Don’t get me wrong. I love my children with my entire heart and soul and I cannot conceive of anything I wouldn’t do for them. But we had to go through the tortures of the damned to come out on the other end together. I don’t have to do that with my grandchildren. They are there for my hugs and kisses and laughter and love. Then I simply send them home to mommy and daddy for the rest. I earned that right and I intend to enjoy every moment of it. I learned that lesson from both my grandmother and great-grandmother. I cannot recall a time that I needed either of them when they failed me. But neither did they try to take my mother’s place as a parent. Instead they just opened their arms and offered me pure, unadulterated love, every single day. I want to be that for my grandchildren. I want them to look back someday and think of me in that same special way.

While there are a lot of other things that go into being a good parent, in-law, and grandparent, I can guarantee you this: If you just start with these five guidelines, you are well on your way to total and complete success!

 

One Texan’s Support for a Voter Photo ID Law

In a society where a photo ID is required to for actions ranging from cashing a check to buying a six pack of beer, requiring one to perform one of the most solemn acts in a democracy, voting, seems only sensible.

The argument that, in the state of Texas, Hispanics are less likely to have a photo ID than Anglos is not persuasive. How many of these Hispanics who lack a photo ID are actually registered voters, not to mention legally in the country? The studies being cited by the Justice Department do not provide this information.

The integrity of elections is one of the most important things that should be defended in a democracy. A vote by someone who is not qualified to vote is a theft from people who are qualified to vote.

Voter fraud has been a fact of life in Texas since Lyndon Johnson stole the 1948 Senate race. Claims that such cases are rare today are not persuasive against a photo ID law. If murder were rare, measures to prevent that crime would still be relevant and necessary. That is true for voter fraud as well.

Seven Gardening Tips for a Beautiful Garden

/A garden is an endless source of pleasure for those who love gardening. It’s a place to get away from your worries and tensions. Lush green and colorful flowers or growing vegetables are sure to lift your spirits. Following are some tips that might be helpful if you are just getting started setting up your garden.

  1. Keep your garden weed free and insect free for a healthy garden that is welcoming to you, your children,your grandchildren, or whomever you choose to share your special place with.
  2. Plant a garden that is easy and within your means to keep. Planting an extensive garden will take extensive care to maintain it. When it becomes more of a chore than a pleasure, you know you have overdone it.
  3. Before you buy your plants, ensure that the soil is ready for planting. There’s nothing worse than buying your new plants and then not being able to plant them because you have done nothing to prepare the soil.
  4. When buying new plants, make sure they are healthy. Some nurseries will put plants on sale that appear to be only half alive. They might seem like a tempting bargain, but unless you have a green thumb, probably many of these plants will not make it. Make sure your new plants are green, healthy, and have signs of new growth on them.
  5. You might want to decorate your garden in a variety of ways. Earthen figures or ornamental clay pots add a nice touch to decorating a garden. Or perhaps a pile of stones well placed at a corner of the garden would add a unique look.
  6. Buy yourself a good, sturdy set of gardening tools. Without good tools, making the garden becomes a difficult task. And you don’t want to lose interest before you have your plants in the ground.
  7. Kneeling can take a toll even on the most fit person. Sometimes investing in strap on knee pads or a knee pad that you place on the ground and kneel on is worthwhile.

Gardening can be an extremely relaxing hobby. You can build yourself a reading area in or near your garden which can be a pleasurable escape from reality. To see something you have planted grow and become more beautiful with each passing day will make you smile. And if you have planted vegetables, to enjoy the cooked fruits of your labor is unsurpassable.

Hydroponic Gardening for Clean, Green Food

Everyone knows the benefits of clean organic food. It’s no secret we all want to eat healthier, more nutritious foods and lead more sustainable lives. Do you sometimes think you may not have enough fresh greens in your diet? Imagine having all the salad greens and vegetables you’ll ever need, clean and fresh from your yard or indoor garden. The idea of gardening may conjure up problems for some urban dwellers such as inadequate space, the time and trouble of irrigation, and just spending all your free time in the dirt. Hydroponic gardening could be the answer to all of those gardening issues and offer solutions to many more.

Hydroponic gardening is a very simple concept. It provides constant irrigation which contains nutrients for plants without the need for soil as a growing medium. You can buy hydroponic gardening systems online or you can build your soil-free garden yourself. This article is not a step by step on how to build one of these efficient gardens but rather a look at how these gardens operate and what one might look like.

The main thing in hydroponic gardening is the stream of circulating water. It will usually come from a storage tank on the ground with a water pump that pumps water up to the top or high point of the garden. Many people like to use 3 to 4 inch PVC pipe to channel the stream which has its advantages. The stream and the storage tank must be “light tight”; the pipe method accomplishes this. If your nutrient rich water is exposed to sunlight you’ll have algae blooms in no time. PVC is also sold with all the right sized attachments like the end pieces and “t” fittings. Another method for streaming uses household rain gutters containing gravel or other lightweight rocks. The key element is to get water with added nutrients pumped from the storage tank to the high end of your stream and have it saturate all the plant roots as it flows by before dropping back into your storage tank. The water should splash from about 6 inches above the surface so it can re-aerate.

In the top of the PVC stream pipe are holes cut large enough for plant holders. Plastic pots are available with open slotted sides so water can flow through to nourish your plants. There are various growing mediums made from moss-like materials to hold the plants in place. This “flowing water” feature of hydroponics allows your plants to take just as much water as they need; no more and no less. This means you never worry about watering the right amount; you just change the water every few weeks and add more nutrients. It’s wise to do a lot of research on plant nutrients before starting your hydroponic garden as nutrients are considered the “key” in this type of gardening. You need to use the right nutrients for the right plants. It stands to reason that all plants in the stream should be compatible in their nutrient needs. Too much nutrient in the stream can cause “nutrient burn” causing your plants to turn brown and die. The pH in the water has to be in the proper range and rain water usually works well. If you don’t have access to rain water, there are “pH kits” you can purchase to get the water in the right pH range.

It’s been said that if we stopped wasting water and fossil fuels on mowing and growing grass lawns and we simply planted food crops at home, we could feed the world. By growing your own food you’ll use less fuel for shopping, fewer grocery bags and know what is in and on your food. This is certainly another example of “green is better”. The ease and convenience of hydroponic gardening makes it clear that we do have choices. From apartment or condo balconies, to front yards, back yards and roofs, hydroponic gardens can help make our families healthier, happier and more self-sufficient!

Why Do You Need To Recycle Kitchen Appliances

The majority of countries imposed certain regulations on recycling kitchen and home appliances with the increasing concern about the environment. Especially in Europe and in the USA, you might even get a fine of you throw away old appliances along with your normal waste.

What appliances should be recycled?

If the government in your country imposed recycling of electrical appliances by law, they probably offer options for people that want to recycle them. You can call a Green Line and someone will come to pick up your old fridge, microwave or washing machine. For some appliances like convection microwaves, you can give your old machine for a new one, having the peace of mind that your old device is recycled correctly.

The microwave oven is a recyclable appliance as well. It is important not to throw it in nature or with the common waste, as it has many recyclable parts that are also harmful for the environment.

Recyclable appliances thrown in nature have many harmful effects

  • They are 10 times more polluting than common waste
  • Almost 75% of a microwave oven can be recycled and the components can be reused for making new appliances
  • Most of governments offer programmes encouraging people to recycle these devices and to change them for new ones. This is a win-win situation as the energy saved by replacing old appliances is huge.
  • Most of new devices are less consuming than the old ones, so there is an incentive for everyone to recycle old appliances such as microwave ovens often.

Old electric appliances have many elements that are non-degradable, such as mercury and cadmium. If these substances reach the soil, they will be polluted for a long time. Freon is a substance commonly used to manufacture fridges, and it can be completely recycled to make new appliances. Freon release in atmosphere is one of the main factors of pollution.

Plastic is a non-degradable material that has toxic emissions in the atmosphere. Microwave ovens are made of special plastic that would degrade even harder, besides the metal parts that are also recyclable and can be reused.

Mercury is a part of batteries, LCD screens and switches. Mercury intoxication can lead to serious health problems such as cancer, diabetes and lungs problems.

How are electric appliances recycled?

It is the responsibility of each one of us to identify the closest place where you can recycle your appliances. There should be a recycling spot at your local grocery store where you can bring small appliances and batteries, but if you have a bigger appliance, you can check for a brand offering you the possibility to send the old appliance and replace it with the new one.  

You can find programs of such kind for your microwave oven as well. Make sure you are buying a reputed brand that would also have a pick-up service, so you can give the old appliance and get the new one easily. Many brands offer this service as it is a great way to encourage clients to recycle.

Container Care Tips for Container Gardening

/Container gardening is the fastest growing trend in home gardening. Container gardening enables everyone from apartment dwellers to landowners to beautify their surrounding and produce food. These container care tips will help keep the beauty and food production going strong year after year.

Container Cleaning Made Easy

Containers need to be emptied and cleaned at the end of the growing season or in spring prior to re-planting. The nutrients in the soil have been depleted and needs to be replenished and the containers need to be cleaned to prevent any spread of disease or pests.

A cheap toilet brush will make cleaning containers easy. Dump the used soil out of the container onto a tarp and scrub the container with a mild soap and water solution and the toilet brush. It will keep your hands clean and thoroughly clean the containers.

Replenishing Soil Nutrients

While you have the soil removed from the container, replenish the nutrients for another growing season by mixing in some compost or cow manure. Nutrient-rich soil will feed the flowers and vegetables and the organic matter will keep the container soil from compacting.

Use Newspaper, Charcoal And A Wick

Before placing the amended soil back into the container, add three things that will make container gardening easier.

Placing a folded piece of newspaper in the bottom of the container to cover large drainage hole will prevent the soil from spilling out when it’s placed back into the container. The newspaper will also prevent the soil from washing out during watering.

Poke a small hole in the newspaper that covers the bottom drainage hole and add a wick for slow water absorption. The wick can be any absorbent material, a strip of cotton or wool works great. The wick needs to be long enough to be about two inches up inside the container, with the opposite end of the wick on the outside of the container to lay in the drain tray. When watering your container garden, put water in the drain tray and the wick will help keep the soil moist and the plant from drying out. Makes watering easier and is especially useful if you are away from home for a few days during the growing season.

Add a few pieces of activated charcoal to the bottom of the containers before replacing the soil. The charcoal absorbs excess water, making it almost impossible to over water any indoor or outdoor plants (over-watering is the leading cause of plant death). The charcoal absorbs excess water and slowly releases it back into the container soil

Container gardening is fun and practical, and these container care tips will help keep your containers and plants in tip-top shape.

Portland, Oregon Chinese Garden

Sometimes you just need to escape the city. This isn’t always an easy thing to do when you’re actually in a city. But right in the middle of downtown Portland, is a full city block that contains the Portland Classical Chinese Garden (NW 3rd & Everett, Portland, Oregon, 97209). If you’re looking for something interesting, different, and fun to do in Portland, Oregon – the Chinese Garden is a fantastic place to visit on your list of things to do.

The Portland Chinese Garden was started in 2000 – as a partnership between Portland and it’s Chinese sister city: Suzhou, China. The two cities became ‘sisters’ in 1988 and support many projects between the two. The Portland Chinese Garden is like a window into Chinese culture, architecture, and gardens – right in downtown Portland.

The architecture and garden itself was created by workmen from Portland’s sister city of Suzhou – which is also one of China’s oldest cities. Portland construction companies provided the foundation, while all of the Chinese structures in the garden are truly Chinese.

The garden is over 40,000 square feet with an 8,000 square foot lake, Lake Zither. The garden contains a large number of plants indigenous to China – some over 100 years old.

As well as the beautiful garden and lake, there is a traditional Chinese teahouse located in the Garden’s Tower of Cosmic Reflection. In the teahouse you can sample a wide variety of teas which were originally used as medicines in ancient China – and experience a traditional tea ceremony. While you’re enjoying your tea you can read and learn about the long history and benefits of different teas.

Although you can go and enjoy the Chinese Gardens for a few quiet hours in the middle of a busy day – the garden is also available to rent for various events – like weddings. I imagine it would be a very interesting and fantastic location for a wedding.

The Portland Chinese Gardens also offer a number of classes and tours for schools or visitors. Or you can explore the gardens on your own. One of the great things about the garden is that it is constantly changing as well, so each visit is unique.

There is an admission fee – or you can purchase an annual membership at a reasonable rate. My wife and I actually received a membership as a wedding present and have enjoyed it immensely.

If you’re looking for something to do in Portland, Oregon, something that is a little bit quieter than the usual hustle and bustle of the city – be sure to check out the Portland Classical Chinese Gardens right in the middle of downtown Portland, Oregon.

What is Godwin’s Law?

When it comes to humanity’s potential for evil, you can’t get a better prime example than Adolf Hitler. He killed millions of innocent people and started another world war just so that he could attempt to seize control for himself. With the internet being what it is, comparing someone to Hitler has become commonplace. Whenever someone does something that you don’t approve of, see if you can find a way to link it to Hitler to make it seem that much worse.

 

This is a ridiculous tactic for a variety of reasons. For one thing, it’s blatant hyperbole. Second, it does come off as being in poor taste comparing someone who you’re debating to a mass murdering, genocidal madman.

As such, the internet banded together and passed something that is referred to as “Godwin’s Law”. It even has its own page on TVtropes. Basically, Godwin’s Law decrees that anyone who compares a person or action to either Hitler or the Nazis, automatically loses the argument.

For example, if a meat eater and a vegetarian were to get into an argument over which diet choice is better, the meat eater might point out that Hitler was a vegetarian. It has nothing to do with anything and just sounds weird. Oddly enough, people cite his vegetarianism as a redeeming quality more than a condemning one.

He was also quite fond of his dog, and animals in general, so if you were arguing with someone who had a beloved pet, or an avid animal rights activist, you might bring that up if you wanted to invoke the law.

Ironically, for as many people out there who equate their bad boss with the dictator, the man was apparently quite pleasant in that regard.

Sadly, as with other laws, people still insist on breaking it. There was a point where shock jock Howard Stern compared Jay Leno to Hitler (Stern isn’t a fan of the late night comedian to say the least). When George W. Bush was in office, the far left was throwing out Hitler comparisons every chance they could get.

Now that Barack Obama is in office, it’s the far right that is throwing out the Hitler comparisons.

Regardless of your political affiliation, I would like to believe that a vast majority of the populace finds both comparisons absolutely ridiculous.

It should be noted that simply invoking the name of Hitler isn’t necessarily breaking the aforementioned law. If you were discussing history, then Nazi Germany would be an appropriate thing to discuss. Every once in a while, a dictator will come along and maybe…maybe you could get away with making a parallel, but by and large, the Hitler comparison is over the top and will result in a fail on your part.

If you are actually talking about the man and his time in power, all is well and good. It’s when you use the comparison to insult someone or to advance your own argument that you fail.

While the trope is gaining some exposure, it clearly needs to be brought up more as people continue to make ridiculous Hitler comparisons and it just makes everyone look ridiculous.

 

Old Kentucky Law Thwarts Rush Limbaugh

Thousands of Republicans and Independents were re-registering as Democrats to participate in Pennsylvania’s closed Democratic primary before the March 24th deadline. On April 22nd, Pennsylvania will go to the polls. The purpose of a closed primary is to keep voters affiliated with other parties from participating. It makes sense. Why should a Republican be allowed to help choose the nominee for the Democrats, and vice versa? Beyond that, if a state chooses to have closed primaries, it doesn’t make sense to allow voters to switch parties less than a month before the vote!

Conservative radio talk show hosts Rush Limbaugh, Laura Ingraham and others have been telling their Republican listeners to temporarily register as Democrats in states with closed primaries. They want them to vote for Hillary in order to keep her viable, hoping to prolong the Democratic race and fracture the party. They are taking advantage of an opening in the sysytem, not to mention the fact that Republicans already have a nominee. In states that haven’t voted yet, Republicans are trying to influence the race on the Democratic side. Nobody could have anticipated a primary season like this, and many states need to update their voting rules.

Kentucky is a closed primary state. Voters go to the polls May 20th. If you’re a registered Republican or Independent hoping to get a piece of the Democratic action, you’re out of luck! Not only is the primary closed, but Kentucky has a little known law in place to prevent “party raiding”… Party raiding is when voters change party affiliation in order to influence the vote. To prevent this, Kentucky has two deadlines for people to register. New voters have until April 21st to register. But if you’re already registered and simply wanted change party affiliation, you had to do so before December 31st of last year to be eligible to vote in the May 20th primary… Sorry party crashers!

Over 9,000 registered voters in Kentucky have changed party affiliation since the beginning of the year, but most are just learning they are too late.